The triple layered business model canvas in smart agriculture: the case of Evja startup
Keywords:business model innovation, circular economy, green economy, smart agriculture
In recent years, the studies of Business Model Innovation (BMI) and Circular Economy (CE) has been an issues much debated in literature. Moreover, the sustainable development enhanced by the Green Economy (GE) and by smart technologies represent a huge opportunity for generating profit in newly and environmentally way. Actually, was not widely investigated, what is the impact of Sustainable Business Model (SBM) in terms of competitive advantage for the firms, especially for Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) towards big companies. The research design is based on the following phases. Firstly, give a literature review of significant and emerging studies on BMI and SBM. In a second step, access to a conceptual and managerial model, in order to compare it in the scientific community and expand the debate on sustainable development also in managerial perspective. The proposed conceptual model has been tested on EVJA company, an Italian innovative start-up operating in agri-food industry. The methodology adopted was a qualitative analysis. Earlier, starting with a deep literature review in order to identify and classify the main contributions on the topic of sustainable and circular business model. Later, by in depth interviews and focus group to a firm’s key informants (namely the CEO and Co-Founder and Chief technology officer and Co-Founder of the firm) and on experts and practitioners deriving from academic and managerial community. The desk research on the case study was enriched by the recurs to primary and secondary sources. The final aim is to suggest a Triple Layered Business Model Canvas (TLBMC), in the reference framework of circular economy, to support the farms manager to figure out appropriate course of actions to promote the re-use and fighting climate changes, providing better services and products (in terms of value for money to the customers). The TLBMC tool in agri-food industries can fostering the SMEs to captures value evaluating the potentials of SBM and producing in a more economically and responsibly way. In a holistic vision, that would be involve its customers, suppliers, employees, and communities, as well as its shareholders.
Andersen, M. S. (2007). An introductory note on the environmental economics of the circular economy. Sustainability science, 2(1), 133-140.
Antikainen, M., & Valkokari, K. (2016). A framework for sustainable circular business model innovation. Technology Innovation Management Review, 6(7).
Auernhammer, H. (2001). Precision farming the environmental challenge. Computers and electronics in agriculture, 30(1-3), 31-43.
Björkdahl, J., & Holmén, M. (2013). Business model innovation–the challenges ahead. International Journal of Product Development, 18(3/4), 213-225.
Bocken, N. M., De Pauw, I., Bakker, C., & van der Grinten, B. (2016). Product design and business model strategies for a circular economy.
Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, 33(5), 308-320.
Bocken, N. M., Schuit, C. S., & Kraaijenhagen, C. (2018). Experimenting with a circular business model: Lessons from eight cases. Environmental innovation and societal transitions, 28, 79-95.
Boons, F., Montalvo, C., Quist, J., & Wagner, M. (2013). Sustainable innovation, business models and economic performance: an overview. Journal of Cleaner Production, 45, 1-8.
Campbell, B. M., Thornton, P., Zougmoré, R., Van Asten, P., & Lipper, L. (2014). Sustainable intensification: What is its role in climate smart agriculture? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 8, 39-43.
Cantone, L. Basile V.; Testa, P. Comparing business models in the grocery retailing industry: a conceptual framework proposal. In: Referred Electronic Proceedings, Sinergie-SIMA Conference, Ca'Foscari University of Venice, Italy, 14-15 June 2018-ISBN 97888943937-2. 2018.
Casadesus‐Masanell, R., & Ricart, J. E. (2010). Competitiveness: business model reconfiguration for innovation and internationalization. Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management.
Chesbrough, H., & Rosenbloom, R. S. (2002). The role of the business model in capturing value from innovation: evidence from Xerox Corporation's technology spin‐off companies. Industrial and corporate change, 11(3), 529-555.
Chesbrough, H. (2010). Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers. Long range planning, 43(2-3), 354-363.
Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (1996). Building your company's vision. Harvard business review, 74(5), 65.
Coes, D. H. (2014). Critically assessing the strengths and limitations of the Business Model Canvas (Master's thesis, University of Twente).
Corrao, S. (2005). Il focus group (Vol. 25). FrancoAngeli.
Cristoni, N., & Tonelli, M. (2018). Perceptions of Firms Participating in a Circular Economy. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(4), 105-105.
Daou, A., Mallat, C., Chammas, G., Cerantola, N., Kayed, S., & Saliba, N. A. (2020). The Ecocanvas as a business model canvas for a circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 120938.
De los Rios, I. C., & Charnley, F. J. (2017). Skills and capabilities for a sustainable and circular economy: The changing role of design. Journal of Cleaner Production, 160, 109-122.
Donner, M., Gohier, R., & de Vries, H. (2020). A new circular business model typology for creating value from agro-waste. Science of the Total Environment, 716, 137065.
Eisenhardt, K. M., & Graebner, M. E. (1989). Theory building from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14(4), 532-550.
Evans, S., Vladimirova, D., Holgado, M., Van Fossen, K., Yang, M., Silva, E. A., & Barlow, C. Y. (2017). Business model innovation for sustainability: Towards a unified perspective for creation of sustainable business models. Business Strategy and the Environment, 26(5), 597-608.
Johnson, M. W., Christensen, C. M., & Kagermann, H. (2008). Reinventing your business model. Harvard business review, 86(12), 57-68.
Joyce, A., & Paquin, R. L. (2016). The triple layered business model canvas: A tool to design more sustainable business models. Journal of cleaner production, 135, 1474-1486.
Feagin, Joe R., Anthony M. Orum, and Gideon Sjoberg, eds. A case for the case study. UNC Press Books, 1991. Journal of Business Research, 58 (November), 1474–82.
Fjeldstad, Ø. D., & Snow, C. C. (2018). Business models and organization design. Long Range Planning, 51(1), 32-39.
Foss, N. J., & Saebi, T. (2017). Fifteen years of research on business model innovation: How far have we come, and where should we go? Journal of Management, 43(1), 200-227.
Franklin-Johnson, E., Figge, F., & Canning, L. (2016). Resource duration as a managerial indicator for Circular Economy performance. Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 589-598.
Gale, D. (1989). The theory of linear economic models. University of Chicago press.
Gaug, M., & Pascarelli, N. (2008). U.S. Patent Application No. 11/846,717.
Geissdoerfer, M., Bocken, N. M., & Hultink, E. J. (2016). Design thinking to enhance the sustainable business modelling process–A workshop based on a value mapping process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 1218-1232.
Geissdoerfer, M., Savaget, P., Bocken, N. M., & Hultink, E. J. (2017). The Circular Economy–A new sustainability paradigm? Journal of cleaner production, 143, 757-768.
Geng, Y., Fu, J., Sarkis, J., & Xue, B. (2012). Towards a national circular economy indicator system in China: an evaluation and critical analysis. Journal of cleaner production, 23(1), 216-224.
Govindan, K., & Hasanagic, M. (2018). A systematic review on drivers, barriers, and practices towards circular economy: a supply chain perspective. International Journal of Production Research, 56(1-2), 278-311.
Gregson, N., Crang, M., Fuller, S., & Holmes, H. (2015). Interrogating the circular economy: the moral economy of resource recovery in the EU. Economy and society, 44(2), 218-243.
Grubb, M. J. (1990). Communication energy efficiency and economic fallacies. Energy Policy, 18(8), 783-785.
Guldmann, E., Bocken, N. M., & Brezet, H. (2019). A Design Thinking Framework for Circular Business Model Innovation. Journal of Business Models, 7(1), 39-70.
Guldmann, E., & Huulgaard, R. D. (2020). Barriers to circular business model innovation: A multiple-case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 243, 118160.
Hara, K., Yabar, H., Uwasu, M., & Zhang, H. (2011). Energy intensity trends and scenarios for China’s industrial sectors: a regional case study. Sustainability science, 6(2), 123-134.
Hatten, T. S. (2018). Small Business Management: Creating a Sustainable Competitive Advantage. SAGE Publications.
Jha, K., Doshi, A., Patel, P., & Shah, M. (2019). A comprehensive review on automation in agriculture using artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture, 2, 1-12.
Kirchherr, J., Reike, D., & Hekkert, M. (2017). Conceptualizing the circular economy: An analysis of 114 definitions. Resources, conservation and recycling, 127, 221-232.
Klewitz, J., & Hansen, E. G. (2014). Sustainability-oriented innovation of SMEs: a systematic review. Journal of cleaner production, 65, 57-75.
Lacy, P., & Rutqvist, J. (2016). Waste to wealth: The circular economy advantage. Springer.
Laukkanen, M., & Patala, S. (2014). Analysing barriers to sustainable business model innovations: Innovation systems approach. International Journal of Innovation Management, 18(06), 1440010.
Lieder, M., & Rashid, A. (2016). Towards circular economy implementation: a comprehensive review in context of manufacturing industry. Journal of cleaner production, 115, 36-51.
Lindgardt, Z., Reeves, M., Stalk, G., & Deimler, M. S. (2009). Business model innovation. When the Game Gets Tough, Change the Game, The Boston Consulting Group, Boston, MA.
Loret, N., Affinito, A., & Bonanomi, G. (2019, October). Evja-Intelligent Support System for precision agriculture. In 2019 IEEE International Workshop on Metrology for Agriculture and Forestry (MetroAgriFor) (pp. 227-230). IEEE.
Loret, N., Affinito, A., & Bonanomi, G. (2020). Introducing Evja-" Rugged" Intelligent Support System for precision farming. ACTA IMEKO, 9(2), 83-88.
Markides, C. C. (2013). Business model innovation: what can the ambidexterity literature teach us? Academy of Management Perspectives, 27(4), 313-323.
MacArthur, E. (2013). Towards the circular economy, economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition. Ellen MacArthur Foundation: Cowes, UK.
Nassaji, H. (2015). Qualitative and descriptive research: Data type versus data analysis.
Yin, Robert K. Case study research: Design and methods. Sage publications, 2013.
Yin, Robert K. Applications of case study research. Sage, 2011.
Yin, R. K. (2017). Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage publications.
Van Marrewijk, M., & Werre, M. (2003). Multiple levels of corporate sustainability. Journal of Business ethics, 44(2-3), 107-119.
Mentink, B. A. S. (2014). Circular business model innovation: a process framework and a tool for business model innovation in a circular economy.
Mitchell, R. K., Agle, B. R., & Wood, D. J. (1997). Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts. Academy of management review, 22(4), 853-886.
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. John Wiley & Sons.
Pisano, P., Cautela, C., & Pironti, M. (2014). Changing customer roles to innovate business models: an overview of design-intensive industries. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, (2).
Rebitzer, G., Ekvall, T., Frischknecht, R., Hunkeler, D., Norris, G., Rydberg, T., ... & Pennington, D. W. (2004). Life cycle assessment: Part 1: Framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications. Environment international, 30(5), 701-720.
Rizos, V., Behrens, A., Van der Gaast, W., Hofman, E., Ioannou, A., Kafyeke, T., ... & Topi, C. (2016). Implementation of circular economy business models by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): Barriers and enablers. Sustainability, 8(11), 1212.
Maglio, R., Rey, A., Agliata, F., & Lombardi, R. (2020). Connecting earnings management and corporate social responsibility: A renewed perspective. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(2), 1108-1116.
Saidani, M., Yannou, B., Leroy, Y., & Cluzel, F. (2017). How to assess product performance in the circular economy? Proposed requirements for the design of a circularity measurement framework. Recycling, 2(1), 6.
Sauerwein, M., Doubrovski, E., Balkenende, R., & Bakker, C. (2019). Exploring the potential of additive manufacturing for product design in a circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 226, 1138-1149.
Schallmo, D. (2013). Geschäftsmodell-Innovation. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
Skarzynski, P., & Gibson, R. (2008). Innovation to the core: A blueprint for transforming the way your company innovates. Harvard Business Press.
Sposato, P., Preka, R., Cappellaro, F., & Cutaia, L. (2017). Sharing economy and circular economy. How technology and collaborative consumption innovations boost closing the loop strategies. Environmental Engineering & Management Journal (EEMJ), 16(8).
Stahel, W. R. (2016). The circular economy. Nature, 531(7595), 435-438.
Stafford, J. V. (2000). Implementing precision agriculture in the 21st century. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 76(3), 267-275.
Svensson, G., Wagner, B., & Høgevold, N. M. (2011). A corporate effort towards a sustainable business model. European Business Review.
Torben, R. (2014). Organizational culture eats strategy for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Hentet, 13, 2016.
Upward, A., & Jones, P. (2016). An ontology for strongly sustainable business models: Defining an enterprise framework compatible with natural and social science. Organization & Environment, 29(1), 97-123.
Walter, A., Finger, R., Huber, R., & Buchmann, N. (2017). Opinion: Smart farming is key to developing sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(24), 6148-6150.
Zott, C., & Amit, R. (2010). Business model design: an activity system perspective. Long range planning, 43(2-3), 216-226.
How to Cite
Copyright and licensing: The journal supports the principles contained in the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to scientific literature (2003), reiterated in the Italian CRUI Guidelines on Open Access journals. Copyright Notice: papers made open to the public are published under the CC BY--4.0 license.
Archiving : This journal uses the LOCKSS system to create an archiving system, which is distributed between participating libraries and enables them to search through the permanent archives of the journal for the purposes of conservation and restoration. All journal data and publications are also saved and stored directly on the platform