The impact of web 2.0 on the marketing processes of restaurant businesses


Restaurant firms
online visibility
social media marketing

How to Cite

Pencarelli, T., Cioppi, M., Curina, I., & Forlani, F. (2019). The impact of web 2.0 on the marketing processes of restaurant businesses. Piccola Impresa Small Business, (1).
Received 2018-12-05
Accepted 2019-03-11
Published 2019-07-21


This paper analyzes the modalities whereby the restaurant industry is facing the web 2.0 evolution. To achieve this objective, the study adopts multiple approach-types (adoption of an online visibility index, fuzzy-set ideal type analysis and interviews conducted to 33 Italian restaurants). Results highlight relevant gaps between full exploitation of the web potentialities and the best results obtained by the investigated restaurants (subdivided into four different ideal-types based on their online visibility performances). From a theoretical viewpoint, the study contributes to enriching the analysis of the online visibility management applied to the restaurant sector, through the creation of an index able to measure the online performances by each restaurant in relation to competitors. In addition, the work also provides managerial implications for firms’ marketers and practitioners, by identifying possible guidelines for the adoption of a pro-active attitude in using the 2.0 tools.


Adhikari, A., & Bhattacharya, S. (2016). Appraisal of literature on customer experience in the tourism sector: review and framework. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(4), 296-321.

Al Muala, A. (2018). Influence of Viral Marketing Dimensions on Customer Satisfaction in Fast Food Restaurants in Jordan. Journal of Management & Sustainability, 8(1), 149-155.

Aureli, S., & Supino, E. (2017). Online Reputation Monitoring: An Exploratory Study on Italian Hotel Managers’ Practices. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 18(1), 84-109.

Baggio, R., & Del Chiappa, G. (2014). Real and virtual relationships in tourism digital ecosystems. Information Technology & Tourism, 14(1), 3-19.

Beese, E. (2011). The use and perceived effectiveness of e-marketing technologies in restaurants. Paper Presented at the 9th Undergraduate Research.

Buhalis, D., & Law, R. (2008). Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of eTourism research. Tourism Management, 29(4), 609-623.

Campos, A. C., Mendes, J., Valle, P. O. D., & Scott, N. (2018). Co-creation of tourist experiences: A literature review. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(4), 369-400.

Ciccia, R., & Verloo, M. (2012). Parental leave regulations and the persistence of the male breadwinner model: Using fuzzy-set ideal type analysis to assess gender equality in an enlarged Europe. Journal of European Social Policy, 22(5), 507-528.

Cioppi, M., Curina, I., Forlani, F., & Pencarelli, T. (2016). La visibilità on-line delle imprese alberghiere: un possibile modello di misurazione. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, 1(2016), 78-98.

De Pelsmacker, P., van Tilburg, S., & Holthof, C. (2018). Digital marketing strategies, online reviews, and hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 72(2018), 47-55.

Del Chiappa, G. (2011). Trustworthiness of Travel 2.0 applications and their influence on tourist behavior: an empirical investigation in Italy. In Law, R., Fuchs, M., Ricci, F. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Wien: Springer.

Fiss, P. C. (2011). Building better causal theories: A fuzzy set approach to typologies in organization research. Academy of Management Journal, 54(2), 393-420.

Forlani, F., & Pencarelli, T. (2018). The Tourist Offer of the Destination in an Experience Logic Perspective. In The Experience Logic as a New Perspective for Marketing Management (pp. 71-89). Cham: Springer.

Horster, E., & Gottschalk, C. (2012). Computer-assisted webnography: A new approach to online reputation management in tourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(3), 229-238.

Inversini, A., Marchiori, E., Dedekind, C., & Cantoni, L. (2010). Applying a Conceptual Framework to Analyze Web Reputation of Tourism Destinations. In

Gretzel, U., Law, R., & Fuchs, M. (eds.), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism (pp. 321-332), Wien: Springer.

Jeong, E., & Jang, S. S. (2011). Restaurant experiences triggering positive electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) motivations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 356-366.

Karanasios, S., & Burgess, S. (2008). Tourism and Internet adoption: a developing world perspective. International Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 169-182.

Khobzi, H., & Teimourpour, B. (2014). How significant are the users' opinions on social media? International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, 22(4), 254-272.

Kim, W. G., Li, J. J., & Brymer, R. A. (2016). The impact of social media reviews on restaurant performance: The moderating role of excellence certificate. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55(2016), 41-51.

Kimes, S. E. (2011). The current state of online food ordering in the US restaurant industry. Cornell Hospitality Report, 11(17), 6-18.

Kvist, J. (2007). Fuzzy set ideal type analysis. Journal of Business Research, 60(5), 474-481.

Leung, X. Y., Bai, B., & Stahura, K. A. (2015). The marketing effectiveness of social media in the hotel industry: A comparison of Facebook and Twitter. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39(2), 147-169.

Leung, D., Law, R., Van Hoof, H., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media in tourism and hospitality: A literature review. Journal of travel & tourism marketing, 30(1-2), 3-22.

Litvin, S.W., Goldsmith R.E., & Pan, B. (2008). Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management. Tourism Management, 29(3), 458-468.

Lu, X., Ba, S., Huang, L., & Feng, Y. (2013). Promotional marketing or word-of-mouth? Evidence from online restaurant reviews. Information Systems Research, 24(3), 596-612.

Mellet, K., Beauvisage, T., Beuscart, J. S., & Trespeuch, M. (2014). A “democratization” of markets? Online consumer reviews in the restaurant industry. Valuation Studies, 2(1), 5-41.

Middleton, V. T., & Clarke, J. R. (2012). Product formulation in tourism. In Marketing in Travel and Tourism (pp. 138-154). London: Routledge.

Middleton, V.T., Fyall, A., Morgan, M., & Ranchhod, A. (2009). Marketing in travel and tourism. Oxford: Routledge.

Munoz-Leiva, F., Hernández-Méndez, J., & Sánchez-Fernández, J. (2012). Generalizing user behavior in online travel sites through the Travel 2.0 website acceptance model. Online Information Review, 36(6), 879-902.

Murphy, J., Forrest, E., & Wotring, C. E. (1996). Restaurant marketing on the world wide web. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 37(1), 61-71.

Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2015). Technology as a catalyst of change: enablers and barriers of the tourist experience and their consequences. Information and communication technologies in tourism 2015 (pp. 789-802). Cham: Springer.

Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., & Ladkin, A. (2014). A Typology of technology-enhanced tourism experiences. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(4), 340-350.

Pencarelli, T., Cioppi, M., & Forlani, F. (2015). L’impatto del web 2.0 sul marketing delle piccole imprese alberghiere. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, 2(2015), 11-32.

Raguseo, E., Neirotti, P., & Paolucci, E. (2017). How small hotels can drive value their way in into mediation. The case of ‘Italian hotels vs. OTAs and TripAdvisor’. Information & Management, 54(6), 745-756.

Salleh, S., Hashima, N. H., & Murphy, J. (2015). Instagram marketing: a content analysis of top Malaysian restaurant brands. E-Review of Tourism Research, 6(2015), 1-5.

Sigala, M. (2018). New technologies in tourism: From multi-disciplinary to anti-disciplinary advances and trajectories. Tourism management perspectives, 25(2018), 151-155.

Smithson, S., Devece, C. A., & Lapiedra, R. (2011). Online visibility as a source of competitive advantage for small and medium-sized tourism accommodation enterprises. The Service Industries Journal, 31(10), 1573-1587.

Standing, C., Tang-Taye, J. P., & Boyer, M. (2014). The impact of the Internet in travel and tourism: A research review 2001–2010. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 31(1), 82-113.

Trunfio, M., & Della Lucia, M. (2018). Engaging Destination Stakeholders in the Digital Era: The Best Practice of Italian Regional DMOs. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 43(3), 349-373.

Wang, H. Y. (2011). Exploring the factors of gastronomy blogs influencing readers’ intention to taste. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(3), 503-514.

Xiang, Z., & Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of social media in online travel information search. Tourism Management, 31(2), 179-188.

Xiang, Z., Woeber, K., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (2008). Representation of the online tourism domain in search engines. Journal of Travel Research, 47(2), 137-150.

Xie, K. L., Zhang, Z., & Zhang, Z. (2014). The business value of online consumer reviews and management response to hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 43(2014), 1-12.

Zhang, H. Y., Ji, P., Wang, J. Q., & Chen, X. H. (2017). A novel decision support model for satisfactory restaurants utilizing social information: A case study of TripAdvisor. com. Tourism Management, 59(2017), 281-297.

Zhang, Z., Ye, Q., Law, R., & Li, Y. (2010). The impact of e-word-of-mouth on the online popularity of restaurants: A comparison of consumer reviews and editor reviews. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(4), 694-700.

Zhao, X., Wang, L., Guo, X., & Law, R. (2015). The influence of online reviews to online hotel booking intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(6), 1343-1364.

Copyright and licensing:  The journal supports the principles contained in the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to scientific literature (2003), reiterated in the Italian CRUI Guidelines on Open Access journals. Copyright Notice: papers made open to the public are published under the CC BY--4.0 license. 

Archiving :  This journal uses the LOCKSS system to create an archiving system, which is distributed between participating libraries and enables them to search through the permanent archives of the journal for the purposes of conservation and restoration. All journal data and publications are also saved and stored directly on the platform