Workforce Diversity and Employees’ Performance: Evidence from a Nigerian Bank


  • John Kolade Obamiro Lagos State University, Ojo Nigeria
  • Babatunde Oladipupo Kumolu-Johnson Lagos State University, Ojo Nigeria
  • Justice Chidi Ngwamaj Crawford University, Igbesa Nigeria



The study examined the relationship between workforce diversity and employee performance in selected branches of First Bank of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between gender diversity and job satisfaction. Also. examine the relationship between ethnic diversity and employee intention to quit. Survey research method was adopted in this study. One hundred and twenty-one (121) copies of questionnaire were distributed and eighty-three (83) copies were returned and valid for the analysis of stated hypotheses. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) analysis was adopted to test the relationship between variables. The gender diversity correlate with job satisfaction at a value of r = 0.891, while ethnic diversity correlate with employee intention to quit at a value of r = 0.825. The results showed a strong relationship between workforce diversity variables and employee performance of First Bank of Nigeria Plc. Alimosho branches. The study recommended that management should continue to promote equal employment and opportunity for career growth for all gender and should improve cultural awareness of the employees through social interaction.


Keywords: Diversity; Employees’ intention to quit; Ethnic diversity; Gender diversity; Job satisfaction.

Author Biography

John Kolade Obamiro, Lagos State University, Ojo Nigeria

Full Professor, Department of Economics, Society and Politics (DESP)


Abdussalam, F.Y. (2018). A board gender diversity and firm performance : An evaluation of the Nigerian banking industry. DOI: 10.31142/rajar/v4i6.02

Adeniji, A.A. (2011). Organisational climate and job satisfaction among academic staff in some selected private Universities in southwest Nigeria. (Unpublished Ph.D Thesis). Department of Business Management, Covenant University, Ogun, Nigeria.

Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong's Handbook of Reward Management Practice: Improving Performance Through Reward (4th ed.). London: KoganPage.

Arokiasany, A.A. (2013). Literature Review on Workforce Diversity, Employee Performance and Organizational Goals: A Concept Paper. International Refereed Research Journal, IV(4), 58-63.

Assefa, A.W. (2014). Effect of Worforce Diversity Towards Employee Performance in Total Ethiopia S.C. Retrieved on February 20, 2011, from:

Ayat Mohammed, M. (2019). Effect of workforce diversity on job performance of hotels working in Jordan. International Journal of Business and Management, 14(4), 85-98

Aydan, O. (2016). The Effect of Diversity Management on Job Satisfaction and Individual Performance of Teachers. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(3), 105-112.

Balleer, A., Gomez – Salvador, R. and Turunen, J. (2009), Labor force participation in the Euro Area A Cohort based analysis. European central Bank, Working Paper Series No: 1049, 1-54.

Beziibwe, A.S. (2015). Relationship between workplace diversity and organisational performance (Doctoral dissertation, Uganda Technology and Management University, Uganda).

Boon, C., Hartog, D.N., Boselie, P. and Paauwe, J. (2011), The relationship between perceptions of HR practices and employee outcomes: examining the role of person– organisation and person–job fit”, The International Journal of Human Resource, 2(3).

Boshoff, C., & Allen, J. (2000). The influence of selected antecedents on frontline staff’s perceptions of service recovery performance. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 11(1), 63-90.

Bossaert, Danielle, Christoph Demmke & Timo Moilanen (2012). The impact of demograph-ic change and its challenges for the workforce in the European public sectors Three pri-ority areas to invest in future HRM. EIPA: European Institute of Public Administra-tion.

Department of Higher Education. (2015). Transformation and restructuring: A new institutional landscape for higher education. Revised Version for 2010/11 - 2014/15. DHE.

Dixit, V., & Bhati, M. (2012). A study about employee commitment and its impact on sustained productivity in Indian Auto-Component Industry. European J. Business and Social Sci., 1(6), 34 – 51.

Durga, P.R. (2017). The Impact of Workforce Diversity on Organizational Effectiveness:(A Study of Selected Banks in Tigray Region of Ethiopia). International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 6(1), 427-434.

Foma, E. (2014). Impact of Workplace Diversity. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 3(1), 382-390.

Fugate, M., Prussia, G.E. and Kinicki, A.J. (2012), “Managing employee withdrawal during organizational change: the role of threat appraisal”, Journal of Management, 38(3), 890-914.

Galbreath, J. (2010). Drivers of corporate social responsibil¬ity: The role of formal strategic planning and firm culture. British Journal of Management, 21(2), 511-525.

Gao, C.L. (2016). The relationship between training, work attitudes, leadership and job performance (Doctoral dissertation, University Utara, Malaysia).

Green, K.A., López, M., Wysocki, A., & Kepner, K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. University of Florida, 1(4), 1-3.

Griffin, R.W., & Van Fleet, D.D. (2014). Management Skills: Assessment and Development. U.S.A.: South Western Cengage Learning.

Gupta, R. (2013). Workforce Diversity and Organizational Performance. International Journal of Business and Managment Invention, 2(6), 36-41.

Hafiza N. S., Shah S. S., Jamsheed H. & Zaman K. (2011). Relationship between reward and employee motivation in the non-profit organisations of Pakistan. Business Intelligence Journal, 4(2), 198-209.

Harrison, D., & Klein, K. (2007). What's the Difference? Diversity Constructs as Separation, Variety, or Disparity in Organizations. The Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1199–1228.

Healy, G., kirton, G., & Noon, M. (2011). Equality, Inequilities and Diversity: Comtemporary Challenges and Strategies. US: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hope, N. W., Obianuju, M. C. & Chibuzoh, A. (2017). Workplace environment and employee performance in selected brewing firms in Anambra State. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 5(1), 111-120.

Ibidunni, A. S., Falola, H.O., Ibidunni, O. M., Salau, O.P., Olokundun, M.A., Borishade, T. T., Amaihian, A. B. & Peter, F. (2018). Workforce diversity among public healthcare workers in Nigeria: Implications on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Data In Brief, 18, 1047-1053

Jain, R. & Kaur, S. (2014). Impact of work environment on job satisfaction. Int. J. Scientific and Res. Publications, 4(1), 1-8.

Kehoe, R. and Wright, P.M. (2013), “The impact of high performance human resource practices on employees’ attitudes and behaviours”, Journal of Management, 39(2), 366-391.

Kim, A., Kim, Y. & Han, K. (2018). A cross level investigation on the linkages between job satisfaction and voluntary workplace green behavior. Journal of Business Ethics. DOI: 10.1007/e10551-018-3776-7

Kowo, S.A., Kadiri, I. B., & Sabitu, O. O. (2018). Effect of participative leadership style on employee’s productivity. International Journal of Economic Behavior, 8(1), 47-60

Kundu, S.C., & Gahlawat, N. (2016). High performance work systems and employees’ intention to leave: Exploring the mediating role of employee outcomes. Management Research Review, 39(12), 1587-1615.

Kunze, F., Boehm, S.A., & Bruch, H. (2011). Age Diversity, Age Discrimination Climatte and Performance Consequences: A Cross Organizational Study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 264-290.

Kyalo, J.M.K. (2015). Effect of diversity in workplace on employee performance in the banking industry in Kenya. Strategic Journal of Business & Change Management, 2(2).

Langford, P.H. (2009). Measuring organisational climate and employee’ intention to quit: Evidence for a 7 Ps mod¬el of work practices and outcomes. Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(4), 185-198.

Lukasz, M. (2018). Main directions of development in the defence industry sector in the aspect of globalization. International Journal of Economic Behavior, 8(1), 145-155.

Ngao, E. & Mwangi, C. (2013). Effects of managing gender of employees in enhancing organizational performance. A Case Study of Kenya Ports Authority. European Journal of Business and Management, 5(21), 50-62.

Odhiambo, O.W. (2014). Workforce diversity and its effects on employee performance: a case of Mbita sub county Homa-Bay County in Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Moi University).

Oerlemans, W. G., Peeters, M. C., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). Ethnic Diversity at Work: An Overview of Theories and Research. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from

O'Flynn, J., Ricciotti, A., Nicholas, S., Lau, K., Sammarino, A., & Fisher, N. (2001). The Theory of Diversity and Group Performance. Australian Centre for International Buisness, 1-54.

Powell, G.N. (2011). Women and Men in Management (4th ed.). California: Sage Publication, Inc.

Reskin, B.F., & Maroto, M.L. 2010. What Trends? Whose Choices?: Comment on England. Gender & Society, 25: 81-87.

Sayers, J. (2012). Managing Diversity. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from

Scott, C.L., & Sims, J. D. (2016). Developing Workforce Diversity Programs, Curriculum, and Degrees in Higher Education. USA: Information Science Reference.

Selvaraj, P.C. (2015). The effects of work Force diversity on employee performance in Singapore organisations. International Journal of Business Administration, 6(2), 17-30.

Shifnas, M.F., & Sutha, J. (2016). Impact of effective workforce diversity management on employees’ performance in construction sector. Human Resources Management Journal, 45(2), 131-145.

Sila, A.K. (2014). Relationship between training and performance: a case study of Kenyan women finance trust eastern Nyanza region, Kenya. European Journal of Business Social Sciences, 3(1), 95-117.

Silvestrelli, P. (2018). Managing changes into international markets: Flexible structures and knowledge sharing for firm competitiveness. International Journal of Economic Behavior, 8(1), 3-18.

Simbarashe, Z., Hlanganipai, N., Wiseman, N., & Tlou, S.S. (2019). Gender diversity, ethnic diversity and employee performance in a South African higher education institution. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4).

Trajfel & Turner, J.C. (1979). Social comparison and group interest in group favouritism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 63(1), 781-796.

Tummers, L. (2013). Policy Alienation and the Power of Professionals: Confronting New Policies. Rotterdam: Edward Elgar.

Van der Walt, S., & Du Plessis, T. (2010). Age diversity and the aging librarian in academic libraries in South Africa. South African Journal of Libraries & Information Science, 76(1), 121-134.

Webb, C. & Carpenter, J (2012). What Can Be Done to Promote the Retention of Social Workers? A Systematic Review of Interven-tions”. British Journal of Social Work 42(7), 1235-1255.