The interpretation of the philosophical thought of Karl Marx given in the second half of the twentieth century canonically distinguishes between the works of the youth period and those of the maturity. Even if only a few interpreters have supported the thesis of the existence of “two Marx”, one opposed to the other, the attention given to some posthumous writings (the Critique of the Hegelian Philosophy of Public Law and the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 in particular) inevitably led to neglect the writings of the younger Marx. However, the years spent in Berlin (1836-41) are decisive, both for the experience gained alongside the young Hegelians and for the discovery of philosophy and philology.
It is precisely from the preparatory work of the doctoral dissertation that Marx's great interest in classical philosophy and philology emerges. The concept of Selbstbewußtsein, inspired by Epicurus and his philosophy of the nature, allows us to recover the centrality of the human being in all phases of Marx's production and in his approachs to philosophy, sociology, political economy.
Keywords: Self-consciousness; Naturalism; Humanism; Historical Materialism; Class consciousness; Alienation; Reification.
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